Lemnos is an island with extremely rich history, dating back to the Palaeolithic Age, as the oldest human settlement in the Aegean Islands, Poliochni, has been unearthed in Lemnos.

Lemnos had great mythological significance, as the ancient Greek myths said that this was where the god Hephaestus had his forge, which is why there was an ancient town, Ifestia, dedicated to his honor. The island is also connected to the legendary hero Philoctetes, who was said to be abandoned there on the way to Troy.

Lemnos was under Athenian and later Macedonian rule in ancient times, until it was declared free by the Romans in 197BC. In 166BC they gave it back to Athens, and in 395BC it was passed to the Byzantine Empire. The island was fortified during that time, and a Byzantine Castle was built, as Lemnos was a target of pirate raids. After the Byzantine Empire dissolved, Lemnos came under Venetian rule, and suffered many sieges, until it was finally offered in 1453 to the Genoese, under whose rule it flourished financially.

Following the Fall of Constantinople, Lemnos was an object of wars between the Venetians and the Ottomans, the latter of which eventually gained control of the island. After 1821 and the Greek Revolution, Lemnos was one of the many Aegean islands that did not join the new Greek State, but was freed in 1912 instead, during the First Balkan War. During World War I, the island was used as a military base by the Allies. Lemnos was finally incorporated to Greece after a treaty was signed in 1918.

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